Arabana uses endings or ‘suffixes’ on the end of verbs and nouns. It is important to learn these endings so that you can begin to create your own sentences.
PART 1: Endings of verbs
Part 1 of this lesson looks at action words (verbs) and some of the common endings added to these words.
PART 2: Endings of nouns
Part 2 of this lesson looks at words for people, places and things (nouns) and some of the common endings added to these words.
PART 3: Word order
Part 3 of this lesson looks at how to arrange sentences (word order)
Part 1: Endings on action words
When we want to talk about doing, saying or thinking anything we need to use action words (verbs).
In this lesson we will be learning some of the different endings on verbs in Arabana. These endings (suffixes) are used to describe when, how or why the action took place. For example, in English ‘-ing’ is a suffix. Compare talk vs talking, listen vs listening, sing vs singing.
When you have finished this lesson, click here to download a chart to help you to remember the endings on action words in Arabana.
Here is a list of commonly used Arabana verbs that we will be using in this lesson. These are all root words. A suffix can be added at the end of these root words to show when, how or why the action is happening.
Here are some commonly used endings (suffixes) which are added to these root words.
NOTE: -rnda and –rda have the same meaning, and either one or the other is used depending on the root word. Refer to a speaker or available resources to help you to decide on the appropriate ending to use.
Here is a list of present tense verbs
NOTE: The present tense can also sometimes be used as a command, to tell someone to do something. i.e. Wiya, thangkarda! 'Boy, sit down!'
Here is a list of past tense verbs
Here is a list of non past verbs
Here is a list of purposive verbs
NOTE: -lhiku instead of -lhuku may also be used to match the final 'i' sound of the root word. For example, ngawilhiku, thanilhiku.
Part 2: Endings on Arabana nouns
Arabana language has endings (suffixes) which can be added to words for people, places or things (nouns). These endings can be used to express movement, ownership and location of the person, place or thing.
When you have finished this lesson, click here to download a chart to help you to remember the endings on nouns in Arabana.
Here is a list of commonly used endings on nouns in Arabana:
NOTE: For more information see Additional Suffixes.
NOTE: Arkapa means 'brown' and is also the word for a type of brown ochre.
NOTE: for more information see Additional Suffixes.
NOTE: Karlatyalpanha is the Arabana name of 'Anna Creek', and it means 'food creek'.
NOTE: Kuya means 'girl', thuthnirnda is the present tense verb 'crying', madla is 'dog', purrthaka is the past tense verb 'bit'.
NOTE: Some of these suffixes may change slightly depending on the noun they are used with. For example, if a noun ends in ‘i’ (such as Kardliti 'Adelaide') then '-ru' will change to ‘-ri’, and '-ruku' will change to ‘-riku’.
Here are some additional suffixes which will be explored in future lessons.
Accusative suffix: -nha is added to the end of a word to show that it is the direct object of the transitive verb (a verb which requires an object in order to make sense). For example,
Ergative suffix: -ru is added to the end of a word to show that it is the agent of a transitive verb (a verb which requires an object in order to make sense). For example,
Instrumental suffix: -ru is added to the end of a word to show 'with what' or 'how' an action is performed. For example,
Part 3: How to arrange sentences
Now that you have learned how to use endings with verbs and nouns, you can start to form your own sentences in Arabana.
To do this, you will need to learn the order in which words are put in a sentence. This is called ‘word order’.
The word order tells us where the verb, subject and object are placed in the sentence.
The verb is any word which describes an action, such as eat, laugh, talk, walk, etc.
The subject is the person or thing in the sentence that is doing the action.
The object is the person or thing in the sentence which is having something done to it by the subject.
In English, the word order is ‘Subject+Verb+Object’.
For example: ‘The dog bit the man’.
‘The dog’ is the subject, ‘bit’ is the verb and ‘the man’ is the object.
In Arabana, the preferred word order is ‘Subject+Object+Verb’.
For example: 'Madla-ru nharla purrthaka’ (the dog+the man+bit).
Madla-ru (the dog) is the subject, nharla (man) is the object and purrthaka (bit) is the verb.
However, the word order in Arabana can be changed. We know which word is the object and which is the subject based on the endings or suffixes used, unlike in English, so it doesn't matter if the order of these words is changed.
If you wanted to draw special attention to the object of the sentence, then the object could come first in the sentence. This word order is 'Object+Subject+Verb'.
This was a long lesson that introduced a range of new concepts in helping you form sentences in Arabana.
In Part 1 we covered Endings of Action Words
Click here to download a chart to help you remember the endings of action words.
In Part 2 we covered Endings of Nouns
Click here to download a chart to help you remember the endings of nouns.
In Part 3 we covered Word Order in Sentences
In Arabana the preferred word order is Subject+Object+Verb.